If you ever wonder why you spend so much time planning, designing and maintaining your on-site washroom facilities, well the facts speak for themselves. On average, people in the UK visit the bathroom between six and eight times every day. That adds up to a whopping 2,500 times in every year and accumulates to three years sitting on a toilet during their lifetime.

Family changing space cannot be over emphasised. Apparently, you will change a baby’s nappy up to 10,000 times before they can use the bathroom by themselves. For those who fancy flushing money straight down the toilet, this one’s for them. A toilet paper roll made from 22-carat gold went on sale in 2013.

Sold by the Australian company Toilet Paper Man, it was priced at a whopping US $1,376,900. If you are looking to bulk order your stock control, you might like to know we use an average of 57 sheets of toilet paper a day. Toilet paper was first invented by the Chinese in the 6th century.

Each sheet was two feet by three feet. Imagine trying to get an eight-pack of that stuff in the washroom store cupboard. According to the well-known Harpic brand, a public toilet can play host to over 40,000 germs at any given time so it pays not just to follow a diligent routine but to keep a very clear record of that routine.

Organisations like Visit England and professional teams like the Cubicle Centre and Commercial Washrooms are always on hand to assist you from the start of your project through to completion. You have to make sure you tick the boxes laid out in the Caravan Sites & Control of Development Act 1960 - Touring Caravan and Campsite Site Conditions.

Although not necessarily legally binding, in general, the following apply for you to demonstrate duty of care:
• Separate ladies and men’s washrooms.
• Optional family facilities
• Working toilets
• Basins with hot and cold water
• Showers with TMV3 (Thermal Mixing Valve) temperature-controlled water
• Power and shaver points
• Disabled toilet and/or disabled shower rooms compliant with Doc M of the building regulations
• Level-entry shower suited for wheelchairs
• Baby-changing facilities, ideally within both male and female washrooms
• Chemical toilet disposal points
• Separate dishwashing facilities - usually external to the toilet blocks
• Drinking Water

Let’s get down to some basic maths. The numbers of facilities provided should be one toilet and urinal for men and two toilets for women for every 30 pitches. There should be a minimum of four water-flowing washbasins per 30 pitches; two each for men and women.

They shall be adjacent to the toilets – usually within the same room. Where a site provides 70 or more pitches, provision of showers shall be on the scale of one shower per 25 pitches.

ALTHOUGH MEN AND WOMEN prefer separate cubicle space family- friendly facilities are an added bonus.

When considering the numbers of toilet cubicles to be included it is good practice to make allowance for 1 in 4 cubicles (in any same-sex washroom) to be classed as ambulant. This includes for grab rails and outward opening doors. Toilets may not be justified where sites have less than ten pitches.

Their site position should be agreed in discussed with the appropriate authorities. Because of the likelihood that children will use site facilities the basins/ showers’ hot water temperature should be controlled by the use of thermal mixing valves. Thermal Mixing Valves (whether integrated within the shower/ basin or as an addition to the supply pipe-work) will limit the hot water temperature to a comfortable level and offer a safeguard against scalding.

When planning a new build washroom block or refurbishing an existing facility there are many building-related health and safety issues to consider. The common sense advice is to appoint and work with a reputable building firm, ideally one who specialises in commercial washroom and toilet refurbishment projects and liaise with planning authorities from the earliest stage.

Unless the budget is particularly tight, the advice is to go for strong and robust materials fit for the high level of use modern holiday resort washrooms receive. For example the use of Solid Grade Laminate toilet/shower cubicles as opposed to a cheaper chipboard core laminate material. The payback over time is likely to be significantly better. Commercial Washrooms Ltd can, of course, offer advice on the different materials available within the commercial washrooms market.

Read our blogs on Washroom Design. Inclusion of baby changing facilities is essential in modern-day toilet and washroom facilities. Depending on the size of the washrooms this may be as simple as a fold-down baby changer or a dedicated family room containing shower, toilet and basin as well as a considerable worktop and vanity unit space for laying the child down.

PATTERSONS WORKED with Away Resorts to freshen up facilities at Tattershall Lakes.

From desirable to dilapidated, modern to outmoded, holiday destinations boast a compendium of conveniences as you aim to create your wellness oasis. Focus on the senses, a bit of background music helps cover some embarrassment – or turn this into a marketing opportunity with a blast of promotional ads or podcasts. Aromatherapy can play a significant role. I mean the pleasant kind.

In fact, the very earliest air fresheners were made from pomegranates and cloves while the first modern air freshener was introduced in 1948. You could also take the opportunity to turn your smallest rooms into art galleries with large scale themed pictures of local scenes or even celebrated film stars. Plan the washroom project as early and as thoroughly as possible in all instances.

This should include detailed working drawings which are continually consulted as well as a robust schedule of the work. Barring any unforeseen issues arising the upgrade should then happen within time and budget. Don’t be tempted to go cheap. More expensive and durable materials will likely last longer and be a better fit for purpose with the rigours of a busy holiday site.

Design of a washroom should be carried out by professionals with appropriate experience of this type of installation as there are many common errors which can be avoided. They will usually offer a full design service with CAD drawings for either a new build or refurbishment. Well-designed and energy-efficient washroom facilities can significantly enhance the overall customer experience for holiday park visitors, while clean, comfortable and modern environments can lead to positive reviews and repeat business.

SOMETIMES WE CAN take providing pet-friendly facilities just a step too far.

With a prominent focus on the importance of water conservation coupled with the need to offer high-quality and modern washroom facilities, Richard Braid, Managing Director at Cistermiser, explains how holiday park operators can maintain a strategic edge.

“Offering premium, comfortable and energy efficient washroom facilities sets a holiday park apart from competitors. With more customers becoming environmentally conscious when it comes to choosing holidays and parks needing to manage their impact on the environment, it becomes a key selling point to attract more visitors and increase occupancy rates,” explains Richard Braid, Managing Director at Cistermiser.

“Incorporating eco-friendly washrooms can help reduce the environmental footprint of the holiday park while minimising water and energy usage, demonstrating a commitment to sustainability and responsible tourism practices. Energy-efficient washrooms can also lead to significant cost-savings over time.” Richard concludes: “Maximising washroom facilities’ design and energy efficiency is not only beneficial for the holiday park’s bottom line but also crucial for enhancing customer satisfaction, maintaining competitiveness and demonstrating environmental responsibility.”

We humans share five common activities every day: breathing, eating, drinking, sleeping and toileting… when you’re away from home, it’s often the latter which creates the biggest cause for concern. Despite this, washrooms are often overlooked, even in the hospitality and leisure sectors where guests of all ages will need to make sure of your facilities. Whether you have a positive or negative experience as a customer, chances are you’ll share it with family, friends and colleagues, or even make a few negative comments on sites like Trip Advisor and Facebook.

Maintaining high standards for your washroom provision can separate you from the competition in a crowded industry. After all, switched-on holiday destination operators know that it makes financial sense to keep visitors on-site as long as possible. The longer they stay, the more money they spend - and not just a spending a penny!



Celebrating Holiday Park SCENE's tenth anniversary...

Flip the rewind switch on the time machine to 2013 and we find British Prime Minister David Cameron publishing a draft European Union Bill aimed at holding a referendum on Britain’s membership of the European Union by 2017. It was the year that former Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher died, following a stroke, while Catherine, now Princess of Wales, gave birth to George Alexander Louis at St Mary’s Hospital, London.

On the sports scene, Andy Murray became the first British man to win Wimbledon since Fred Perry in 1936; defeating Novak Djokovic of Serbia in straight sets. Rising temperatures led to health warnings being issued, for Southern England and the Midlands, in the UK’s first prolonged heatwave since 2006. The weather continued to be challenging as, at the end of October, what became known as the St Judes’ Day storm, brought with it gusts of 99 mph at The Needles on the Isle of Wight.

2013 also saw the launch issue of Holiday Park SCENE, a new print and on-line magazine, packed with fresh ideas and a must-read for anyone who runs or works in a holiday park sector. The Holiday Park SCENE team set out its ambition to work as an extension of destination management teams. These core aims have stayed entrenched in the magazine’s mission statement to inform and inspire UK holiday destinations, boosting visitor experiences and reaping rich returns on investments.

For more than a decade now, Holiday Park SCENE has offered the inside track on the latest market news and reports covering all aspects of holiday park management. We have brought you behind the scenes news on destination businesses that are performing well as generously, they shared their experiences. But most importantly, we have talked to the people who matter – people who add the experience, energy and enthusiasm to keep raising standards across all areas of the UK and Eire holiday park sector.

With the help of our knowledgeable writing team over ten years, we have covered subjects as varied as holiday lodges, glamping, hot tubs, catering and entertainment. The Holiday Park SCENE team has looked at some of the latest options from camping to glamping and investigated the potential for health and wellness as an added value income for business, not just in the summer but all year through.

Over the course of its first decade, Holiday Park SCENE has held hands with some of the biggest names in UK holidays from Butlin’s to Parkdean and from Park Holidays to Hoseasons. Throughout ten busy years, that have simply flown by, the magazine has featured more than 250 destinations and well over 1,000 businesses within the magazine. Holiday Park SCENE has been granted a ten-year long front row seat as the boost in staycations and investment in family time saw the holiday sector enjoy a sustained boom period.

A fountain of inspiration, Holiday Park SCENE supported the networking opportunities at some of the industry’s leading trade shows and event to find out what they can offer businesses in the way of fresh ideas as well as new products and services. Holiday Park SCENE has frequently relied upon some of the UK’s leading parks to share their tips for an effective entertainment programme that will keep guests coming back for more through play and on-site attractions.

We have discussed the e-marketing revolution with the rise and rise of social media which we warned you would ignore at your peril. The New Year is often the traditional time to re-evaluate our business goals. An opportunity to take stock of the previous 12 months and resolve to make a difference for the year ahead. We examined the Winning Ways of maximising the potential of amusement and arcade game attractions.

The holiday park industry has always been ahead of the field when it comes to preserving the business development balance with Mother Nature. David Bellamy was a holiday park ambassador when it came to highlighting the eco-factor, building in green spaces and protecting nature. Holiday Park SCENE has reflected this with frequent looks at everything from eco-friendly accommodation and energy-efficient business choices like heat pumps and electric vehicles.

The first rule of marketing is that it is not good enough to be good. You have to be perceived to be good. So Holiday Park SCENE urged you to pick up your bucket and spade with a heap of tips and ideas that will enable your business to stand out from the crowd. We looked at the increasing use of automated control systems to dramatically reduce the risk of human error in the management of holiday park swimming pools. Holiday Park SCENE has regularly tackled the thorny issue of security with features like Lock Down.

We frequently carried advice on how holiday park destinations can maximise the potential of their water leisure offering, with the addition of splash pads, flumes and water play equipment. We urged you to put up the ‘do not disturb sign’ as we invited you to relish this packed edition with a wealth of inspiring initiatives and ideas to weave into your future business planning.

Probably our most popular and ‘stand-out’ cover of the first ten years, the September 2019 front cover featured one of the life-size wooden horse sculptures now on permanent display at two holiday destinations. More soaring temperatures had accommodation booked to full capacity and then some rain which had the happy visitors spending more on site activities, arcades and in the bars and restaurants. We regularly urged decision-makers to take time away and weigh-up the highs and lows for the season.

What worked well? What could have worked better and what short and long term improvements can be introduced. As well as our regular tips from fellow operators, we brought you timely features like Fashion Statements with the case for quality investment that some argue is crucial for the holiday park sector. We shared the catering thoughts of three holiday park businesses with their Recipe For Success. We also took a look at minimising hassle and maximising sales with our look at on-line management systems in, Click Here.

Like the rest of the sector, Holiday Park SCENE was eagerly anticipating the peak summer season ahead. There had been a general feeling of optimism and positivity in the air with early bird bookings up considerably, even on 2019’s high-flying figures. Then the small matter of COVID 19 hit. Not just the holiday sector but the entire plant. Official figures confirm the travel and tourism industries contributed 6.7% of all gross value added in the UK in 2018.

Since then, the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic impacted the sector heavily in 2020 and into 2021, with government restrictions both in the UK and worldwide preventing tourism for large periods of time. Within the UK, unnecessary travel was first discouraged on 16 March, before a nationwide lockdown was announced on 23 March. Travel was again impacted by the second and third English lockdowns in November 2020 and January 2021 and travel corridors were suspended on 18 January 2021.

Heavily into a stop-start-stop-go scenario, government measures helped in the retention of key staff with some timely business funding initiatives. Restrictions-permitted, the industry’s quick-thinkers took an opportunity to rethink and reinvest in facilities, while the customers were forced to stay away. Holiday Park SCENE reported on the top holiday accommodation trends and revealed the UK’s most popular holiday park destinations while raising the emerging issue of on-site e-charging.

Bonkers busy we knew, but we encouraged managers to locate a quiet cupboard or handy hidey-hole, to escape to, as they soaked up the packed ideas and inspiration throughout the latest edition of Holiday Park SCENE. With the pandemic truly behind us, we challenged business development planners to create an action list with at least five short and long term goals that will help you future-proof business.

The Holiday Park SCENE team pulled out all the stops to keep you abreast of industry trends; sharing good practice with a lodge-full of ideas on maximising the boom in the UK holiday sector. With nearly half of all businesses reporting cyber-crime security issues as well as crucial advice, you could not afford to miss in Lock It Or Lose Out. As we set out on the second decade of reporting on the vibrant UK holiday industry, we feel proud and privileged to work alongside some exceptional businesses and some outstanding people.

We will continue to recommend a pack of sticker notes to mark those pages that you would like to share with the team and to contact some of the advertisers that make Holiday Park SCENE possible. Three cheers to the first ten years as we toast the second decade yet to come!



NEW TO THE UK AUTOMATIC POOL cleaner market this season is an impressive, cordless robotic offering from Ocea UK.

New to the UK automatic pool cleaner market this season, and already being snapped up by some of the biggest holiday destinations in the country, is an impressive robotic offering from Ocea UK. Ocea’s cordless cleaner is powered by Freedrive Technology and navigates using i-MAPPING Technology for accurate and powerful cleaning.

The advanced Freedrive Technology makes the cleaner completely rechargeable and negates the need for an umbilical cable like traditional pool cleaners. Freedrive brings all the advantages of a fully rechargeable power unit giving you the freedom to simply drop the cleaner into the pool – no heavy cable to worry about, nothing to plug in an no caddy to put away.

Magnetic technology makes the battery more energy efficient and long-lasting. Wireless technology means it is safe to swim whilst the cleaner is in action. Being cordless doesn’t leave you with a lack of power. The cleaner can run unhindered for up to three hours, meaning it can easily clean a pool up to 20m long with a single charge. All that while having a pump rate of 18m3 an hour and pumping water through an 18-micron fine mesh filter basket with a 2ltr debris capacity.

The patented i-MAPPING Technology is a smart navigation system that uses the cleaner’s six built in sensors, combined with sophisticated intelligent software, which results in your cleaner having the ability to plot its way efficiently and precisely around any shape pool.

With thanks to the six built-in sensors, the Ocea cleaner detects the difference between the pool floor and pool walls, resulting in an option to do a quick floor sweep, perfect for a last minute clean. It can also detect the pool’s waterline, and will scrub along it, removing all the grime build up that is common for that area. Contact Ocea UK or your usual swimming pool maintenance team to book a try before you buy model – we promise you won’t want to part with it!

Ocea UK
Tel. 01993 707910



The hot tub influence on increasing bookings...


THE VACATION RANGE, from Superior Wellness, boasts robust features designed specifically for the holiday let market.


For the holiday industry, 2022 has been another record year for staycations, delivering an estimated £15.5billion boost to the British economy. According to Sykes Holiday Cottages’ annual Staycation Index, 77 per cent of Brits holidayed in the UK this year, spending an average of £822 on their accommodation alone.

So how do you make your holiday destination stand out from the crowd and increase the odds of internet surfers pressing the book button? The simple answer – add a hot tub. “UK staycations with hot tubs consistently appears on a list of the most common staycation searches,” says Gareth Ward, Sales Director at Superior Wellness, one of the UK’s leading hot tub suppliers.

“A hot tub not only adds a touch of luxury but can also increase occupancy and revenue by up to 60%. “But much more than that, a hot tub allows families and loved ones to reconnect and spend quality time together,” Gareth adds. “People are also focusing on their wellness much more and a hot tub can help with this – soothing aches and pains, reducing anxiety and stress and relieving headaches. All reasons that may inspire a customer to book a holiday property with a hot tub.”


OFFERING A HOT TUB with your holiday let will increase bookings on average by 60 per cent. Pic. Rotospa


Jonathan Pritchard owns a holiday let based in Anglesey, he recently made the decision to add a Vacation Social hot tub, from the Superior Wellness stable, to his property. Jonathan purchased the hot tub from Superior Wellness’ partner at Concept Spa in Wales and he explains: “We wanted to increase bookings and people always say that it’s a bonus to have a hot tub, we were also recommended to get one by Sykes.

“I was recommended by Concept Spa to go for the Vacation social based on the value for money, the fact it’s simple and easy to use, less hassle/ maintenance, less things for people to break. “It has most definitely made a difference to my bookings; we are noticing that the winter months are also filling up much faster.”

If you are looking to purchase a hot tub for your holiday let, Superior Wellness recommend the Vacation Range or their Platinum Spas Holiday Let 5 hot tub. Both offerings are perfect for holiday homes, cottages, B&Bs and Airbnb as they designed specifically for the holiday let market these hot tubs offer a basic layout with no breakable or removeable components and are designed for heavy usage.

The robust but minimalistic design perfectly complements any garden, decking or outdoor environment. Gareth Ward again: “We do get a number of queries from potential buyers and this is a common question. But is the constant upkeep, care and maintenance is going to offer a decent return on your investment?

Gareth Ward again: “You need to look after your hot tub and ensure you provide the care and maintenance it needs and stick to the guidelines. However, the increase in revenue you will receive in terms of price per night and occupancy will outweigh any time and money spent on the upkeep.”



Waiting around for a hot tub to warm up isn’t a holiday guest’s idea of fun, so Golden Coast’s exceptionally fast hot tub heat pumps are ideal for ensuring the spa is ready to enjoy in no time. The inverter-driven Golden Coast air source pump heats water quickly and efficiently.

During a test conducted on a hot tub in an ambient air temperature of 12 degrees, Golden Coast found that it took three hours and 40 minutes to heat the hot tub water from 10 degrees to 38 degrees. This was much faster than the electric heater previously being used.

A Golden Coast heat pump operates on a lower current so uses much less energy than electric heaters without compromising on performance. For each kilowatt of energy consumed, the heat pump offers an output of up to 13 kilowatts of heat – that’s 13 times more efficient than a standard electric heater.

A Golden Coast pump can reach an extremely high coefficient of performance meaning that once the water reaches the desired temperature (up to 40°C) the heat pump turns off while maintaining the temperature. “It is quicker to heat a hot tub with warmer air temperature, but a Golden Coast heat pump performs even in cold weather, so hot tubs can be enjoyed all year round,” says Adam Clark, General Manager at Golden Coast.

“Our heat pump is extremely energy efficient, allowing park owners to make significant savings on their bills. The more hot tubs a holiday park has, the more savings that can be made. Golden Coast has supplied air source heat pumps to a number of holiday parks with great success and with extremely positive feedback from park managers.

Golden Coast’s General Manager, Adam Clark, advises: “Whereas some heat pumps can be loud, a Golden Coast heat pump uses a unique ventilation structure enabling it to maintain noise levels as low as 25dB — ensuring peace and quiet for guests and peace of mind for owners.” When it comes to holiday hot tub insurance, Compass Insurance advise, to make sure that your insurance covers you for loss or damage as well as any possible legal liability arising from them being used.


GREAT FOR FRIENDS and family who want to relax on holiday, the Vacation Lounge hot tub is for 5-6 people and offers the perfect combination of one lounger and five seats. This 13 amp hot tub has R10 insulation and 25 jets.


Most insurers will include hot tubs in their general definition of structures, hire fleet or caravans (at Compass they do) but it’s worth checking the definitions in your policy to make sure. From there it’s also really important to make sure that the replacement cost of the Hot Tub is factored into any sum insured you have for your hire fleet. As well as the Hot Tubs themselves being insured your legal liability to the public using them should also be checked.

Have clear and documented guidance as to who should and shouldn’t use Hot Tubs. Holidaymakers with health conditions, including those with serious illnesses, respiratory and cardiac conditions and diabetes, as well as pregnant women or those on certain medications, should seek advice from their doctor before using a hot tub. Similarly, infections and disease can be spread, so those with body infections and open sores/ wounds etc, should not use a hot tub.

Comprehensive signage and instructions on the use of the hot tub are also important. Most of the claims we see in relation to Hot Tubs, and wet areas in general, relate to slips and trips when getting in and out. Cleaning and maintenance are critical and any hot tub owned by the park should follow a documented and robust process. Where possible this should also be in line with the manufacturer guidance and regular evidence, checks and logs kept.

Regularly checking the water, systems and filters is also essential. Parks have responsibilities even where they do not own the hot tub in question. The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 does not apply to privately-owned hot tubs where there is no financial gain and they are used exclusively by the private owner, family members and occasional guests.

Park owners should also consider the matter of Employers’ Liability. We have seen a case in the past where an employee was known by their employer to have a reaction to chemicals, but the wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) was not enforced. It is almost impossible to defend a claim when a relaxed approach to employee safety is taken. This highlights the importance of training staff appropriately and having systems in place for them to follow when they are involved in the cleaning and maintenance of hot tubs.




Golden Coast
Tel. 01271 378100

Tel. 01246 559071

Compass Insurance
Tel. 0344 274 0276

Smart Thinking

Smart Thinking


There are now a vast number of ways for holiday park owners to save energy and reduce costs.

Put aside all the moralistic haranguing about improving energy efficiency and cutting down on waste ‘for the good of the planet’.

Investing in park efficiency makes just as much sense because it can cut swathes off your bottom line. With a vast number of cost-saving measures, offering fixed term payback periods, there has never been a better time to improve your green credentials and trim your annual overheads.

“Energy is usually the biggest cost after wages, so being energy efficient is key,” points out Jon Proctor, chief executive of Green Tourism.

“There are many ways that this can be incorporated; for example, lighting should now be LED as these are the most efficient and environmentally friendly forms both indoors and out,” says John.

“Space heating can be better-controlled with timers and occupancy sensors for lighting and heating will avoid wastage. Hot water should be stored no more than 60 degrees and ideas like solar hot water should also be considered.”

The owners of Concierge Camping, located on the Ratham Estate near Chichester have taken a ‘green’ approach to the design of their park and have made significant investments to future-proof the site. Guy and Tracey Hodgkin purchased the estate in 2011 and are bringing it back to its former glory. Last year saw the development of Concierge Camping – a luxury touring park on the estate, which offers 15 hardstanding pitches, each with a 16 or 32 amp electrical supply. The on-site shower and toilet block has an energy efficiency B rating and costs the park owners just £10 per week to run. The water is heated by highly efficient heat pumps and the internal environment is controlled by a heat recovery unit. All lightbulbs are LED and Guy plans to add solar panels to the building later this year, to efficiently generate electricity.

“We haven’t made a song and dance about our environmentally-friendly credentials, and if I’m honest, the top end market doesn’t really seem to pay much attention to it,” comments Guy. “When we opened Concierge Camping a year ago, I wanted to make the facilities as economical to run as possible. Every detail was thought out to from day one and the hope is that spending that bit extra on high quality equipment now, should pay-off in the long run.”

Charlie Boughton of Fields End Water Caravan Park, Lodges & Fishery adds: “Our energy efficiency isn’t something we shout about, but I feel it is almost expected by a lot of people these days. “If I am being honest, the main benefits of being energy efficient, is just that I feel I am doing my bit and peace of mind.”

To read more on this story, please subscribe online.

Cotswolds Holiday Park Expands Leisure Facilities

Cotswolds Holiday Park Expands Leisure Facilities

The new social complex at Leedons Holiday Park offers visitors and residents additional recreational facilities.

Caravan park operator Allens Caravans has recently invested in a new state-of-the-art indoor swimming pool and social complex at Leedons Holiday Park in the Cotswolds.
Disused buildings on the holiday park site were demolished to make way for the new facility, which includes a 15m x 6m indoor swimming pool and changing rooms, a large social hall area and a hair studio.
The project was carried out by Derbyshire based pool and commercial building specialists Pinelog, who proposed a contemporary yet practical design of a timber frame building that folds into the landscape. The almost symmetrical, low profile structure, has two main wings housing the swimming pool and hall with separate mono-pitched roofs over the wings and central part of the building.
Pinelog also applied a number of sustainable design and energy efficient features to the leisure centre. In addition to the timber frame and larch cladding being constructed from sustainably produced materials, the building also includes solar roof panels, natural ventilation, extensive use of natural light, heat recovery from the extract ventilation, low energy lighting and recycling the swimming pool water.